Linearizability & Serializability


Linearizability is a guarantee about single operations on single objects. It provides a real-time (i.e., wall-clock) guarantee on the behavior of a set of single operations (often reads and writes) on a single object (e.g., distributed register or data item).

In plain English, under linearizability, writes should appear to be instantaneous. Imprecisely, once a write completes, all later reads (where “later” is defined by wall-clock start time) should return the value of that write or the value of a later write. Once a read returns a particular value, all later reads should return that value or the value of a later write.

Linearizability for read and write operations is synonymous with the term “atomic consistency” and is the “C" in the CAP Theorem. We say linearizability is composable (or “local”) because, if operations on each object in a system are linearizable, then all operations in the system are linearizable.

Serializability is a guarantee about transactions, or groups of one or more operations over one or more objects. It guarantees that the execution of a set of transactions (usually containing read and write operations) over multiple items is equivalent to some serial execution (total ordering) of the transactions.

Serializability is the traditional “I,” or isolation, in ACID. If users’ transactions each preserve application correctness (“C,” or consistency, in ACID), a serializable execution also preserves correctness. Therefore, serializability is a mechanism for guaranteeing database correctness.

Unlike linearizability, serializability does not—by itself—impose any real-time constraints on the ordering of transactions. Serializability is also not composable. Serializability does not imply any kind of deterministic order—it simply requires that some equivalent serial execution exists.

Combining serializability and linearizability yields strict serializability: transaction behavior is equivalent to some serial execution, and the serial order corresponds to real time. For example, say I begin and commit transaction T1, which writes to item x, and you later begin and commit transaction T2, which reads from x. A database providing strict serializability for these transactions will place T1 before T2 in the serial ordering, and T2 will read T1’s write. A database providing serializability (but not strict serializability) could order T2 before T1.

One of the reasons these definitions are so confusing is that linearizability hails from the distributed systems and concurrent programming communities, and serializability comes from the database community. Today, almost everyone uses both distributed systems and databases, which often leads to overloaded terminology (e.g., “consistency,” “atomicity”).

From 6.824 Lecture 7 - Fault Tolerance with Raft - Part 2:

A total order exists for all events in a linearizable system:

  • If two events are non-overlapping, the earlier one must come first in the order
  • If a read sees the value from a write, the write must come first in the order
  • Every read sees the most recent write in the ordering

From 6.824 Lecture 8 - Zookeeper:

Q: How does linearizability differ from serializability?

A: The usual definition of serializability is much like linearizability, but without the requirement that operations respect real-time ordering.

From Designing Data-Intensive Applications > Ordering:

In a linearizable system, we have a total order of operations: if the system behaves as if there is only a single copy of the data, and every operation is atomic, this means that for any two operations we can always say which one happened first.